Monaco, long shaped the Principality of Monaco, Monaco and Munegu Principatu of Munegu, is a country in Western Europe and a joint of the same name occupying the same area as the State itself (this making it a city-state). It is located along the Mediterranean Sea, along the French Riviera, about twenty kilometers east of Nice, and 8.1 km from Menton, border city with Italy. Surrounded by the French towns of Cap d'Ail, Beausoleil, Roquebrune-Cap-Martin and La Turbie, but with direct access to the sea and territorial waters reaching international waters, Monaco is not an enclave in french territory such as San Marino and the Vatican in Italy, but is nevertheless considered "landlocked". Dependent of the Republic of Genoa, whose Grimaldi was one of the patrician families, relatively autonomous since 1297, it became a constitutional monarchy in 1911 and has been run since 2005 by the Sovereign Prince Albert II of Monaco, the Grimaldi dynasty that is one of the oldest ruling dynasties of the world (if we stick to the traditional definition of agnatic the reigning house, the principality of Monaco is passed to the Goyon Matignon family in 1731 and then to the family of Polignac 1949). Monaco has the state religion Catholicism. The state occupied in 2005 an area of 1,974 km²5 and occupies 2.02 km²6 today, making it the second smallest independent state in the world (the first being the Vatican). At the last census of 2008, there were 31,109 inhabitants7 Monaco. This total figure is revised at the end of each year by estimating a partial census and data on immigration and nationality acquisitions, and December 31, 2012 the official total population was updated in 9504 36 people on its 202 hectares; with 18,005 inhabitants per km2, it is the most densely populated country in the world. At 31 December 2014, the estimated population of 37,800 inhabitants according to the Ministerial Order n ° 2015-272 of 22 April 2015. Almost entirely urbanized, the Principality of Monaco enjoys a particularly mild Mediterranean climate and has many luxury hotel facilities. The Monaco Grand Prix Formula 1 takes place there and attractions are present throughout the year including the Monte Carlo Casino, the Oceanographic Museum and the Prince's Palace.